1 Christmas Humphreys, Buddhism Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1962, 189.

2 John Blofeld, The Tantric Mysticism of Tibet New York: Causeway Books, 1974, 35.

3 Lama Anagarika Govinda, Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism London: Rider, 1969, 13.

4 Donald S. Lopez Jr, "Foreigners at the Lama's Feet" in Curators of the Buddha ed. Donald S. Lopez Jr, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995, 252.

5 Donald S. Lopez Jr, "New Age Orientalism: The Case of Tibet", Tricycle: The Buddhist Review 3:3, 1994, 38.

6 Peter Bishop, Tibet in Its Place Bedford Park: Charles Strong Trust, 1983, 3.

7 ibid., 5.

8 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Eastern Religions and Western Thought New York: OUP, 1959, 251.

9 Quoted in J.J. Clarke, Oriental Enlightenment: The Encounter Between Asian and Western Thought London: Routledge, 1997, 19.

10 Stephen Batchelor, The Awakening of the West Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1994, 234.

11 Lopez, "Foreigners at the Lama's Feet", 251-295.

12 See David Snellgrove & Hugh Richardson, A Cultural History of Tibet Boston: Shambhala, 1995, 202, 220-224.

13 See Richard Sherburne, "A Christian-Buddhist Dialog Some Notes on Desideri's Tibetan Manuscripts" in Reflections on Tibetan Culture: Essays in Memory of Turrell V. Wylie ed. Lawrence Epstein & Richard F. Sherburne, Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990, 295-305.

14 Lopez, "Foreigners at the Lama's Feet", 254.

15 Material on de Koros is taken mainly from Lopez, "Foreigners at the Lama's Feet", 256-259.

16 Rick Fields, How the Swans Came to the Lake: A Narrative History of Buddhism in America Boston: Shambhala, 3rd edit.,1992, 285.

17 Lopez, "Foreigners at the Lama's Feet", 259.

18 ibid., 263. See also Lopez's comments on this passage, Curators of the Buddha, 292, n27. The Viceroy of India, also referring to the Younghusband expedition, apologized to the thwarted Swedish explorer Sven Hedin: "I am almost ashamed of having destroyed the virginity of the bride to whom you aspired, viz. Lhasa." Bishop, Tibet in Its Place, 10.

19 Fields, How the Swans Came to the Lake, 285.

20 Lopez, "New Age Orientalism", 38.

21 Younghusband, quoted in Pico Iyer, "Lost Horizons", The New York Review of Books, January 15th, 1998 (internet website).

22 Quoted in Bishop, Tibet in Its Place, 4.

23 Patrick French, Younghusband: The Last Great Imperial Adventurer (1997), quoted in Jeremy Bernstein, "The Road to Lhasa", The New York Review of Books June 12th, 1997 (internet website).

24 Material on Annie Taylor taken from Luree Miller, On Top of the World: Five Women Explorers in Tibet Seattle: The Mountaineers, 1984, 47-69. Alexandra David-Néel's exploits have somewhat overshadowed other women explorers in the Tibetan region in the Victorian and Edwardian periods. These included Nina Mazuchelli, Isabelle Bird Bishop, Fanny Bullock Workman and Jane Duncan, the first three of whom are portrayed in Miller's entertaining book.

25 Even today it is still often asserted that Blavatsky spent time in Tibet, despite the absence of the smallest evidence to support such a claim. See, for example, Eileen Campbell & J.H. Brennan, Dictionary of Mind, Body and Spirit London: Aquarian Press, 1994, 55, or Emily B. Sellon & Renée Weber, "Theosophy and the Theosophical Society", in Modern Esoteric Spirituality ed Antoine Faivre & Jacob Needleman, New York: Crossroad, 1995, 312.

26 Wouter J. Hanegraaff, New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought, Albany: SUNY, 1998, 454. (The same problem arises with a good many "occultists" and "esotericists" in the modern world: precisely the same observation might have been made, for instance, about Gurdjieff, the Armenian thaumaturge.)

27 W.Y. Evans-Wentz, ed., The Tibetan Book of the Dead Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3rd edit., 1960, n7.

28 Andrew Rawlinson, The Book of Enlightened Masters: Western Teachers in Eastern Traditions Chicago: Open Court, 1997, 195, n3.

29 Agehananda Bharati, "Fictitious Tibet: The Origins and Persistence of Rampaism", Tibet Society Bulletin 7, 1994 (internet website).

30 For a review of the recent and ever-proliferating literature on Blavatsky see Stephen Prothero, "Theosophy's Sinner/Saint: Recent Books on Madame Blavatsky", Religious Studies Review 23:3, July 1997, 256-262. See also Frederick Clews, "The Consolation of Theosophy", The New York Review of Books, September 19th, 1996 (internet website). For a brief, dispassionate and well-informed discussion of Blavatsky's influence on Western occultism and esotericism see Wouter J. Hanegraaff, New Age Religion and Western Culture 448-455.

31 J.J. Clarke, 89. See also Mark Bevir, "The West Turns Eastward: Madame Blavatsky and the Transformation of the Occult Tradition", Journal of the American Academy of Religion 62:3, 1994, 747-765.

32 Emily B. Sellon & Renée Weber, "Theosophy and the Theosophical Society", 325-326.

33 Hanegraaff, 455.

34 David-Neél, quoted in Miller, On Top of the World 145.

35 Nyanatiloka Thera was born Anton Gueth in Germany, 1878. He came to Buddhism through theosophy and was ordained in Burma in 1904, later founding the Island Hermitage in Ceylon. For a biographical sketch see Rawlinson, Enlightened Masters 459-461. See also Stephen Batchelor, The Awakening of the West: the Encounter of Buddhism and Western Culture Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1994, 307-308.

36 See Bishop, Tibet in Its Place, 1.

37 See Barbara & Michael Foster, The Secret Lives of Alexandra David-Neél Woodstock: The Overlook Press, 1998, 225-234.

38 The two most recent biographies are those by the Fosters (already cited) and Ruth Middleton's Alexandra David-Neél: Portrait of an Adventurer, Boston: Shambhala, 1989. (Although the Fosters have a taste for the lurid and the sensational their biography is rather more robust than Middleton's.)

39 Donald S. Lopez Jr, Prisoners of Shangri-La Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998, 110.

40 For instance, there is no mention of her in recent works by J.J. Clarke, Donald Lopez or Raymond Schwab although she is clearly more significant than many of the figures they do discuss.

41 Blofeld cited in Foster, Secret Lives, 299 (source uncited).

42 The dates are of the first English translations. For bibliographical information on books by and about David-Neél see Foster, Secret Lives 310-319.

43 Foster, Secret Lives, xxi.

44 See Miller, On Top of the World, 171-172.

45 Quoted in Miller, On Top of the World, 186.

46 Evans-Wentz, Tibetan Book of the Dead, ix.

47 For some merciless criticism of the Evans-Wentz/Dawa-Samdup translations see John Reynolds, trans & ed., Self-Liberation through Seeing with Naked Awareness, Barrytown: Station Hill, 1989. This is a new translation of what Evans-Wentz published as The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation. See also Lopez, Prisoners of Shangri-La, Chapter 2.

48 In each case the translation work primarily coming from Kazi-Samdup, Evans-Wentz being a compiler, editor and commentator.

49 Most of the biographical material which follows is taken from Ken Winkler, Pilgrim of the Clear Light: The Biography of Dr. Walter Y. Evans-Wentz Berkeley: Dawnfire Press, 1981. A short sketch can also be found in Fields, How the Swans Came to the Lake, 285-287.

50 Some Notes for an Autobiography, quoted in Winkler, 8-9.

51 Preface to the first edition of The Tibetan Book of the Dead, ixx-xx in the 3rd edition.

52 On Sorenson/Shunya see Rawlinson, Enlightened Masters, 528-532. There are also some scattered references to him in Ken Winkler's biography of Lama Govinda, A Thousand Journeys Shaftesbury, Element, 1990.

53 Alexandra David-Neél, Magic and Mystery in Tibet New York: University Books, 1956, 17.

54 Some Notes for an Autobiography quoted in Winkler, Pilgrim of the Clear Light , 1.

55 See comments by Lama Govinda in Winkler, Pilgrim of the Clear Light, vi. In defence of Evans-Wentz it must be said that he was always ready to be apprised of errors and inadvertencies: after World War II, for instance, his friend Lama Govinda (at this time living on Evans-Wentz's modest "estate" at Kasar Devi, near Almora) came across an authorised Tibetan block print of the Bardo Thodol with which he closely compared the Evans-Wentz translation. Govinda's corrections appeared in subsequent editions of the text. See Evans-Wentz's Preface to third edition. Details of Evans-Wentz's friendship with Govinda and his wife, Li Gotami, can be found in K. Winkler, A Thousand Journeys, Chapter 12.

56 See Fields, How the Swans Came to the Lake, 286.

57 Evans-Wentz quoted in Fields, How the Swans Came to the Lake, 287.

58 p. xxi in 3rd edition.

59 Schopenhauer subscribed to the widely held Romantic belief that Christianity "had Indian blood in its veins" and claimed that "Christianity taught only what the whole of Asia knew already long before and even better", for which reason he believed that Christianity would never take root in India: "the ancient wisdom of the human race", he stated, "will not be supplanted by the events in Galilee. On the contrary, Indian wisdom flows back to Europe, and will produce fundamental changes in our knowledge and thought". Quotes from Schopenhauer taken from Clarke, 68-69. See also Raymond Schwab, The Oriental Renaissance: Europe's Rediscovery of India and the East, 1680-1880, New York: Columbia University Press, 1984, 427-428.

60 Most of Jung's writings on Eastern subjects can be found in Volume XI (Psychology and Religion: West and East) of The Collected Works of Carl Jung, London: Routledge, 1969 (second edition). His commentary on The Secret of the Golden Flower is in Volume XIII, Alchemical Studies.

61 Gerhard Wehr, Jung: A Biography Boston: Shambhala, 1988, 283.

62 Clarke, 154

63 C.G. Jung, "Commentary on The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation", Collected Works XI, 481.

64 C.G. Jung, Psychological Commentary in The Tibetan Book of the Dead, ed. W.Y. Evans-Wentz, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3rd edition, 1960, xxxvi-vii.

65 "I quite deliberately bring everything that purports to be metaphysical into the daylight of psychological understanding...[and] strip things of their metaphysical wrappings in order to make them objects of psychology"; from Psychology and the East, quoted in Clarke, 154-155.

66 C.G. Jung, Psychological Commentary on 'The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation' (1939), in The Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Vol XI, 500. Likewise: "Study yoga, you will learn an infinite amount from it–but do not try to apply it." Eastern techniques of spiritual transformation, he believed, had over millennia grown in a climate very different from that of the West whose development "had been along entirely different lines". C.G. Jung, Psychology and the East , 82.

67 There has been a recent surge of interest in Jung's understanding of Eastern doctrines and on his role in disseminating them in the West. For a small sample of this literature see J.J. Clarke, Jung and Eastern Thought: A Dialogue with the Orient London: Routledge, 1994; Harold Coward, Jung and Eastern Thought Albany: SUNY, 1985; Radmilla Moacanin, Jung's Psychology and Tibetan Buddhism, Boston, Wisdom Publications, 1986; Philip Novak, "C.G. Jung in the Light of Asian Psychology", Religious Traditions 14, 1991, 66-87; Harry Oldmeadow, Mircea Eliade and Carl Jung: 'Priests without Surplices' Department of Arts, La Trobe University Bendigo, 1995 (Studies in Western Traditions: Occasional Papers, 1). On Jung's role in the recent history of Western esotericism see Antoine Faivre, Access to Western Esotericism Albany: SUNY, 1994; Gerhard Wehr, "C.G. Jung in the Context of Christian Esotericism and Cultural History" in Modern Esoteric 68 On Keyserling see Mercedes Gallagher Parks, Introduction to Keyserling: an account of the man and his work, London: Jonathan Cape, 1934. See esp. Ch 3. For some commentary on Keyserling's influence on Assagioli see Jean Hardy, A Psychology with Soul: Psychosynthesis in Evolutionary Context London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987.

69 For a brief account of Tucci's career see Luciano Petech, "Giuseppe Tucci", The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 7, 1984, 137-142.

70 Giuseppe Tucci, Tibet, Land of Snows London: Paul Elek, 1967, 13-14.

71 Fosco Mariani, Secret Tibet London: Hutchinson, 1952. For some discussion of the medieval theme in Mariani, and more generally in European writings about Tibet, see Peter Bishop, The Myth of Shangri-La London: the Athlone Press, 1989.

72 Giuseppe Tucci, To Lhasa and Beyond Ithaca: Snow Lion Books, 1983, 8.

73 Tenzing gives his own portrait of Tucci, dictated to James Ullman and reproduced in his Man of Everest. For Tucci's comments on Tenzing see Tibet, Land of Snows, 13.

74 Preface to To Lhasa and Beyond, 1983 edit., 5.

75 See William Cash: "The Nazi who climbed a mountain and came down a Hollywood film star", The Age, October 18, 1997, News Extra 8. The Harrer case also raises again the painful problem of the possible collusions between Orientalism, Western exponents of Eastern practices and fascism.

76 Information on Pallis taken from his own books, from his article "A Fateful Meeting of Minds: A.K. Coomaraswamy and René Guénon", Studies in Comparative Religion 12:2 & 4, 1978, 175-188, and from Thomas Merton, The Asian Journal of Thomas Merton New York: New Directions, 1975, 71-72.

77 Arnaud Desjardins The Message of the Tibetans Stuart & Watkins, London, 1969, 20.

78 See Marco Pallis: "Thomas Merton, 1915-1968", Studies in Comparative Religion 3:3, 1969, 138-146.

79 See review of a later edition of Peaks and Lamas by R.W.J. Austin in Studies in Comparative Religion 9:4, 1975, 253-254.

80 Huston Smith, Review of Marco Pallis, A Buddhist Spectrum in The Eastern Buddhist 15:2, Autumn 1982, 145. The work of Marco Pallis fulfils a vital function in the traditionalist school in which Buddhism has received comparatively little attention. Mention should be made of a major work on Buddhism by another traditionalist: Frithjof Schuon's In the Tracks of Buddhism, London: Allen & Unwin, 1968 (later revised and published as Treasures of Buddhism Bloomington: World Wisdom Books, 1993).

81 Lama Anagarika Govinda, The Way of the White Clouds Boulder: Shambhala, 1970, 13.

82 Rawlinson, Enlightened Masters, 276.

83 See Lopez, Shangri-La, 59-62, 125-126.

84 John Blofeld, The Wheel of Life Berkeley: Shambhala, 1972, 236-237.

85 Amongst the many works by such authors, as well as works cited elsewhere in this chapter, the following are amongst the better-known: Spencer Chapman Lhasa, the Holy City London: Readers Union/Chatto & Windus, 1940; André Guibaut, Tibetan Venture London: Readers Union/John Murray, 1949; André Migot, Tibetan Marches London: Hart-Davis, 1955; George Patterson, Tibetan Journey London: Readers Book Club, 1956; Geoffrey T. Bull, When Iron Gates Yield London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1955; Han Suyin Lhasa, the Open City London: Jonathan Cape, 1976 (an apologia for the Chinese occupation); Sorrell Wilby, Tibet, a woman's lone trek across a mysterious land Melbourne: Macmillan, 1988.

86 As well as works already cited elsewhere see Paul Brunton, A Hermit in the Himalayas (1937), London: Rider, 1980; John Snelling, The Sacred Mountain, London: East West Publications, 1983; and Lizelle Raymond, To Live Within Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1973.

87 For a biographical sketch and a brief assessment of Richardson's scholarly work, see the tribute by his collaborator, David Snellgrove, "An Appreciation of Hugh Richardson" in Michael Aris & Aung San Suu Kyi (eds): Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1979, vii-xv.

88 Snellgrove & Richardson, Cultural History, 13.

89 For a review of Blofeld's Wheel of Life see Arthur Lederman & Patricia Bjaaland, The Eastern Buddhist 6:2, Oct 73, 154-156.

90 Excerpts from Merton's Asian Journal concerning aspects of Eastern spirituality have recently been published as Thoughts on the East, ed. George Woodcock, New York: New Directions, 1995. The passages concerning Tibetan Buddhism can be found on pages 70-81.

91 Peter Bishop, Tibet in Its Place, 6.

92 The doctrine of "third eye" has a long and honourable pedigree in many religious traditions: as is the case with much of Rampa's "esoterica", what we get in these books is often a parody of authentic doctrines.

93 quoted in Lopez, Shangri-La, 93.

94 quoted in Lopez, Shangri-La, 98.

95 Lopez, Shangri-La, 105.

96 ibid., 112.

97 Whitall Perry, Review of Christopher Evans, Cults of Unreason in Studies in Comparative Religion 9:3, 1975, 183-187 (quotation from 185).

98 On American transcendentalism and its connections with Eastern religion, philosophy and spirituality see Arthur Versluis, American Transcendentalism and Asian Religions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

99 On the Beats' engagements with Buddhism see Carole Tonkinson (ed) Big Sky Mind: Buddhism and the Beat Generation New York: Riverhead Books, 1995. On Ginsberg see Harry Oldmeadow, "To a Buddhist Beat: Allen Ginsberg on Politics, Poetics and Spirituality", Beyond the Divide (Bendigo), 2:1, Winter, 1999, 56-67.

100 See Tony Schwartz, What Really Matters: Searching for Wisdom in America New York: Bantam Books, 1995, Ch 1, and Theodore Roszak, The Making of a Counter Culture London: Faber, 1970, Chs 4 & 5.

101 Quoted in Tony Schwartz, What Really Matters 37. (In fairness it should also be pointed out that the chairman, David McClelland, protected Leary and Alpert for as long as he reasonably could.)

102 Quoted in William O'Neill, Coming Apart: An Informal History of America in the Sixties Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1971, 239.

103 Clarke, Oriental Enlightenment, 104.

104 ibid.

105 See Mircea Eliade, Autobiography II: 1937-1960, Exile's Odyssey Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988, pp. 152-153, and The Quest: History and Meaning in Religion Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969, 62-63.

106 Susan Sontag, "The Aesthetics of Silence" in A Susan Sontag Reader ed. E. Hardwick, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1983, 181.

107 Clarke, Oriental Enlightenment 105.

  • 108 Christmas Humphreys, Buddhism, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1951, 223.

    109 Clarke, Oriental Enlightenment, 159.

    110 Alan Watts, Psychotherapy East and West, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973, x. (See also Frithjof Capra, The Turning Point, London: Fontana, 1983, 167-168.)

    111 C.G. Jung in a 1935 paper on psychotherapy, cited in Gerhard Wehr, Jung: A Biography Boston: Shambhala, 1988.293.

    112 Stanislav Grof, The Holotropic Mind, San Francisco, 1993, 21.

    113 Of the many sources on this subject one might mention the following: Guy Claxton (ed), Beyond Therapy: The Impact of Eastern Religions on Psychological Theory and Practice Sturminster Newton: Prism, 1996; Nathan Katz (ed), Buddhist and Western Psychology Boulder: Prajna Press, 1983; John Welwood (ed), Awakening the Heart: East/West Approaches to Psychotherapy and the Healing Relationship Boulder: Shambhala, 1983.

    114 Antoine Faivre, Access to Western Esotericism and Wouter J. Hanegraaff, New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought.

    115 See pp10-15 of Access to Western Esotericism.

    116 For some commentary related to this general issue see my articles "Sankara's Doctrine of Maya", Asian Philosophy, 2:2, 1992, 131-146, and "'The Translucence of the Eternal': Religious Understandings of the Natural Order", Sacred Web (Vancouver), 2, 1998, 11-31. See also Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Religion and the Order of Nature, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 46-48.

    117 For a thoughtful review of the films Seven Years in Tibet and Kundun see Pico Iyer, "Lost Horizons".

    118 Many of these developments are discussed in the most recent edition of How the Swans Came to the Lake.

    119 Ursula Bernis, "Tibet in the Shadow of Our Imagination", Parabola 22:3, August 1997, 84.

    120 Gustavo Benavides, "Giuseppe Tucci, or Buddhology in the Age of Fascism" in Curators of the Buddha, 181.

    121 Lopez, "New Age Orientalism", 43. See also Lopez's comments on what he calls "the demonisation of China" which he sees as "yet a further manifestation of the continuing orientalist romance of Tibet" in Curators of the Buddha, 292-293, n32.

    122 Lama Anagarika Govinda, The Way of the White Clouds, xi.

    123 Lopez, Shangri-La, 7

    124 Marco Pallis quoted by Lopez, Shangri-La, 8.

    125 Lopez, Shangri-La, 8.

    126 Jacob Needleman, The New Religions New York: Pocket Books, 1972, 168.

    127 Lama Anagarika Govinda, "Introductory Foreword" to The Tibetan Book of the Dead, lxiii. Arnaud Desjardins recalls showing some passages from the works of "certain celebrated Western scholars" to Tibetan lamas in India, passages which "caused them considerable astonishment"–to which one can only say, "no doubt!". See The Message of the Tibetans, 132.

    128 Marco Pallis, Review of Jacob Needleman, The New Religions in Studies in Comparative Religion 5:3, 1971, 189-190.