13 See Richard Sherburne, "A Christian-Buddhist Dialog Some Notes on Desideri's Tibetan Manuscripts" in Reflections on Tibetan Culture: Essays in Memory of Turrell V. Wylie ed. Lawrence Epstein & Richard F. Sherburne, Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990, 295-305.
18 ibid., 263. See also Lopez's comments on this passage, Curators of the Buddha, 292, n27. The Viceroy of India, also referring to the Younghusband expedition, apologized to the thwarted Swedish explorer Sven Hedin: "I am almost ashamed of having destroyed the virginity of the bride to whom you aspired, viz. Lhasa." Bishop, Tibet in Its Place, 10.
24 Material on Annie Taylor taken from Luree Miller, On Top of the World: Five Women Explorers in Tibet Seattle: The Mountaineers, 1984, 47-69. Alexandra David-Néel's exploits have somewhat overshadowed other women explorers in the Tibetan region in the Victorian and Edwardian periods. These included Nina Mazuchelli, Isabelle Bird Bishop, Fanny Bullock Workman and Jane Duncan, the first three of whom are portrayed in Miller's entertaining book.
25 Even today it is still often asserted that Blavatsky spent time in Tibet, despite the absence of the smallest evidence to support such a claim. See, for example, Eileen Campbell & J.H. Brennan, Dictionary of Mind, Body and Spirit London: Aquarian Press, 1994, 55, or Emily B. Sellon & Renée Weber, "Theosophy and the Theosophical Society", in Modern Esoteric Spirituality ed Antoine Faivre & Jacob Needleman, New York: Crossroad, 1995, 312.
26 Wouter J. Hanegraaff, New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought, Albany: SUNY, 1998, 454. (The same problem arises with a good many "occultists" and "esotericists" in the modern world: precisely the same observation might have been made, for instance, about Gurdjieff, the Armenian thaumaturge.)
30 For a review of the recent and ever-proliferating literature on Blavatsky see Stephen Prothero, "Theosophy's Sinner/Saint: Recent Books on Madame Blavatsky", Religious Studies Review 23:3, July 1997, 256-262. See also Frederick Clews, "The Consolation of Theosophy", The New York Review of Books, September 19th, 1996 (internet website). For a brief, dispassionate and well-informed discussion of Blavatsky's influence on Western occultism and esotericism see Wouter J. Hanegraaff, New Age Religion and Western Culture 448-455.
35 Nyanatiloka Thera was born Anton Gueth in Germany, 1878. He came to Buddhism through theosophy and was ordained in Burma in 1904, later founding the Island Hermitage in Ceylon. For a biographical sketch see Rawlinson, Enlightened Masters 459-461. See also Stephen Batchelor, The Awakening of the West: the Encounter of Buddhism and Western Culture Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1994, 307-308.
38 The two most recent biographies are those by the Fosters (already cited) and Ruth Middleton's Alexandra David-Neél: Portrait of an Adventurer, Boston: Shambhala, 1989. (Although the Fosters have a taste for the lurid and the sensational their biography is rather more robust than Middleton's.)
47 For some merciless criticism of the Evans-Wentz/Dawa-Samdup translations see John Reynolds, trans & ed., Self-Liberation through Seeing with Naked Awareness, Barrytown: Station Hill, 1989. This is a new translation of what Evans-Wentz published as The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation. See also Lopez, Prisoners of Shangri-La, Chapter 2.
49 Most of the biographical material which follows is taken from Ken Winkler, Pilgrim of the Clear Light: The Biography of Dr. Walter Y. Evans-Wentz Berkeley: Dawnfire Press, 1981. A short sketch can also be found in Fields, How the Swans Came to the Lake, 285-287.
52 On Sorenson/Shunya see Rawlinson, Enlightened Masters, 528-532. There are also some scattered references to him in Ken Winkler's biography of Lama Govinda, A Thousand Journeys Shaftesbury, Element, 1990.
55 See comments by Lama Govinda in Winkler, Pilgrim of the Clear Light, vi. In defence of Evans-Wentz it must be said that he was always ready to be apprised of errors and inadvertencies: after World War II, for instance, his friend Lama Govinda (at this time living on Evans-Wentz's modest "estate" at Kasar Devi, near Almora) came across an authorised Tibetan block print of the Bardo Thodol with which he closely compared the Evans-Wentz translation. Govinda's corrections appeared in subsequent editions of the text. See Evans-Wentz's Preface to third edition. Details of Evans-Wentz's friendship with Govinda and his wife, Li Gotami, can be found in K. Winkler, A Thousand Journeys, Chapter 12.
59 Schopenhauer subscribed to the widely held Romantic belief that Christianity "had Indian blood in its veins" and claimed that "Christianity taught only what the whole of Asia knew already long before and even better", for which reason he believed that Christianity would never take root in India: "the ancient wisdom of the human race", he stated, "will not be supplanted by the events in Galilee. On the contrary, Indian wisdom flows back to Europe, and will produce fundamental changes in our knowledge and thought". Quotes from Schopenhauer taken from Clarke, 68-69. See also Raymond Schwab, The Oriental Renaissance: Europe's Rediscovery of India and the East, 1680-1880, New York: Columbia University Press, 1984, 427-428.
60 Most of Jung's writings on Eastern subjects can be found in Volume XI (Psychology and Religion: West and East) of The Collected Works of Carl Jung, London: Routledge, 1969 (second edition). His commentary on The Secret of the Golden Flower is in Volume XIII, Alchemical Studies.
65 "I quite deliberately bring everything that purports to be metaphysical into the daylight of psychological understanding...[and] strip things of their metaphysical wrappings in order to make them objects of psychology"; from Psychology and the East, quoted in Clarke, 154-155.
66 C.G. Jung, Psychological Commentary on 'The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation' (1939), in The Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Vol XI, 500. Likewise: "Study yoga, you will learn an infinite amount from itbut do not try to apply it." Eastern techniques of spiritual transformation, he believed, had over millennia grown in a climate very different from that of the West whose development "had been along entirely different lines". C.G. Jung, Psychology and the East , 82.
67 There has been a recent surge of interest in Jung's understanding of Eastern doctrines and on his role in disseminating them in the West. For a small sample of this literature see J.J. Clarke, Jung and Eastern Thought: A Dialogue with the Orient London: Routledge, 1994; Harold Coward, Jung and Eastern Thought Albany: SUNY, 1985; Radmilla Moacanin, Jung's Psychology and Tibetan Buddhism, Boston, Wisdom Publications, 1986; Philip Novak, "C.G. Jung in the Light of Asian Psychology", Religious Traditions 14, 1991, 66-87; Harry Oldmeadow, Mircea Eliade and Carl Jung: 'Priests without Surplices' Department of Arts, La Trobe University Bendigo, 1995 (Studies in Western Traditions: Occasional Papers, 1). On Jung's role in the recent history of Western esotericism see Antoine Faivre, Access to Western Esotericism Albany: SUNY, 1994; Gerhard Wehr, "C.G. Jung in the Context of Christian Esotericism and Cultural History" in Modern Esoteric 68 On Keyserling see Mercedes Gallagher Parks, Introduction to Keyserling: an account of the man and his work, London: Jonathan Cape, 1934. See esp. Ch 3. For some commentary on Keyserling's influence on Assagioli see Jean Hardy, A Psychology with Soul: Psychosynthesis in Evolutionary Context London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987.
71 Fosco Mariani, Secret Tibet London: Hutchinson, 1952. For some discussion of the medieval theme in Mariani, and more generally in European writings about Tibet, see Peter Bishop, The Myth of Shangri-La London: the Athlone Press, 1989.
75 See William Cash: "The Nazi who climbed a mountain and came down a Hollywood film star", The Age, October 18, 1997, News Extra 8. The Harrer case also raises again the painful problem of the possible collusions between Orientalism, Western exponents of Eastern practices and fascism.
76 Information on Pallis taken from his own books, from his article "A Fateful Meeting of Minds: A.K. Coomaraswamy and René Guénon", Studies in Comparative Religion 12:2 & 4, 1978, 175-188, and from Thomas Merton, The Asian Journal of Thomas Merton New York: New Directions, 1975, 71-72.
80 Huston Smith, Review of Marco Pallis, A Buddhist Spectrum in The Eastern Buddhist 15:2, Autumn 1982, 145. The work of Marco Pallis fulfils a vital function in the traditionalist school in which Buddhism has received comparatively little attention. Mention should be made of a major work on Buddhism by another traditionalist: Frithjof Schuon's In the Tracks of Buddhism, London: Allen & Unwin, 1968 (later revised and published as Treasures of Buddhism Bloomington: World Wisdom Books, 1993).
85 Amongst the many works by such authors, as well as works cited elsewhere in this chapter, the following are amongst the better-known: Spencer Chapman Lhasa, the Holy City London: Readers Union/Chatto & Windus, 1940; André Guibaut, Tibetan Venture London: Readers Union/John Murray, 1949; André Migot, Tibetan Marches London: Hart-Davis, 1955; George Patterson, Tibetan Journey London: Readers Book Club, 1956; Geoffrey T. Bull, When Iron Gates Yield London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1955; Han Suyin Lhasa, the Open City London: Jonathan Cape, 1976 (an apologia for the Chinese occupation); Sorrell Wilby, Tibet, a woman's lone trek across a mysterious land Melbourne: Macmillan, 1988.
86 As well as works already cited elsewhere see Paul Brunton, A Hermit in the Himalayas (1937), London: Rider, 1980; John Snelling, The Sacred Mountain, London: East West Publications, 1983; and Lizelle Raymond, To Live Within Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1973.
87 For a biographical sketch and a brief assessment of Richardson's scholarly work, see the tribute by his collaborator, David Snellgrove, "An Appreciation of Hugh Richardson" in Michael Aris & Aung San Suu Kyi (eds): Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1979, vii-xv.
90 Excerpts from Merton's Asian Journal concerning aspects of Eastern spirituality have recently been published as Thoughts on the East, ed. George Woodcock, New York: New Directions, 1995. The passages concerning Tibetan Buddhism can be found on pages 70-81.
92 The doctrine of "third eye" has a long and honourable pedigree in many religious traditions: as is the case with much of Rampa's "esoterica", what we get in these books is often a parody of authentic doctrines.
98 On American transcendentalism and its connections with Eastern religion, philosophy and spirituality see Arthur Versluis, American Transcendentalism and Asian Religions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
99 On the Beats' engagements with Buddhism see Carole Tonkinson (ed) Big Sky Mind: Buddhism and the Beat Generation New York: Riverhead Books, 1995. On Ginsberg see Harry Oldmeadow, "To a Buddhist Beat: Allen Ginsberg on Politics, Poetics and Spirituality", Beyond the Divide (Bendigo), 2:1, Winter, 1999, 56-67.
105 See Mircea Eliade, Autobiography II: 1937-1960, Exile's Odyssey Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988, pp. 152-153, and The Quest: History and Meaning in Religion Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969, 62-63.
113 Of the many sources on this subject one might mention the following: Guy Claxton (ed), Beyond Therapy: The Impact of Eastern Religions on Psychological Theory and Practice Sturminster Newton: Prism, 1996; Nathan Katz (ed), Buddhist and Western Psychology Boulder: Prajna Press, 1983; John Welwood (ed), Awakening the Heart: East/West Approaches to Psychotherapy and the Healing Relationship Boulder: Shambhala, 1983.
116 For some commentary related to this general issue see my articles "Sankara's Doctrine of Maya", Asian Philosophy, 2:2, 1992, 131-146, and "'The Translucence of the Eternal': Religious Understandings of the Natural Order", Sacred Web (Vancouver), 2, 1998, 11-31. See also Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Religion and the Order of Nature, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 46-48.
121 Lopez, "New Age Orientalism", 43. See also Lopez's comments on what he calls "the demonisation of China" which he sees as "yet a further manifestation of the continuing orientalist romance of Tibet" in Curators of the Buddha, 292-293, n32.
127 Lama Anagarika Govinda, "Introductory Foreword" to The Tibetan Book of the Dead, lxiii. Arnaud Desjardins recalls showing some passages from the works of "certain celebrated Western scholars" to Tibetan lamas in India, passages which "caused them considerable astonishment"to which one can only say, "no doubt!". See The Message of the Tibetans, 132.